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Adrian Flores
Adrian Flores

Apium Graveolens Dulce |TOP|



Celery (Apium graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Celery seed powder is used as a spice.




apium graveolens dulce



Celery is a biennial plant that is primarily grown for its thick stalk. It belongs to the Apiaceae family, which also includes parsley, carrots, and fennel. Celery leaves are pinnate to bipinnate, with rhombic leaflets 3-6 cm long and 2-4 cm wide. The flowers are creamy-white, 2-3 mm in diameter, and are produced in dense compound umbels. Modern cultivars have been selected for either solid petioles, leaf stalks, or a large hypocotyl. Wild celery, Apium graveolens var. graveolens, grows up to 1 meter tall and occurs around the globe.


In Europe, another popular variety is celeriac (also known as celery root), Apium graveolens var. rapaceum, grown because its hypocotyl forms a large bulb, white on the inside. The bulb can be kept for months in winter and mostly serves as a main ingredient in soup. It can also be shredded and used in salads. The leaves are used as seasoning; the small, fibrous stalks find only marginal use.


Wild celery, Apium graveolens var. graveolens, grows to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) tall.Celery is a biennial plant that occurs around the globe. It produces flowers and seeds only during its second year. The first cultivation is thought to have happened in the Mediterranean region, where the natural habitats were salty and wet, or marshy soils near the coast where celery grew in agropyro-rumicion-plant communities.[5]


In Europe, another popular variety is celeriac (also known as celery root), Apium graveolens var. rapaceum, grown because its hypocotyl forms a large bulb, white on the inside. The bulb can be kept for months in winter and mostly serves as a main ingredient in soup. It can also be shredded and used in salads.The leaves are used as seasoning; the small, fibrous stalks find only marginal use.[21]


Leaf celery (Chinese celery, Apium graveolens var. secalinum) is a cultivar from East Asia that grows in marshlands. Leaf celery has characteristically thin skin stalks and a stronger taste and smell compared to other cultivars. It is used as a flavoring in soups and sometimes pickled as a side dish.[22]


The Apium graveolens plant has an OPALS allergy scale rating of 4 out of 10, indicating moderate potential to cause allergic reactions, exacerbated by over-use of the same plant throughout a garden.[42] Celery has caused skin rashes and cross-reactions with carrots and ragweed.[42]


Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[44] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC), and celery mericarps dated to the seventh century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. However, they note A. graveolens grows wild in these areas, it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms." Only by classical antiquity is it thought that celery was cultivated.[45]


In the Capitulary of Charlemagne, compiled c. 800, apium appears, as does olisatum, or alexanders, among medicinal herbs and vegetables the Frankish emperor desired to see grown.[47] At some later point in medieval Europe, celery displaced alexanders.[48]


Celery's late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. By 1699, John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery, apium Italicum, (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is a hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage... and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet, at our Great Men's tables, and Praetors feasts, as the Grace of the whole Board".[50]


Apium graveolens is a biennial to perennial herb that is reportedly native to temperate Mediterranean climates in Europe, Asia and Africa. Wild plants typically grow to 24-36" tall and to 12-18" wide with aromatic pinnately divided leaves. In biennial form, the plant forms a basal rosette of leaves in the first year followed in the second year by a summer bloom of off-white flowers in umbels. Plants may naturalize in the landscape through self-seeding. Apium graveolens is the progenitor of two different vegetable crops: (1) Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) which is grown for its edible crisp leaf stalks and leaves and (2) Celery root or Celeriac (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum) which is grown for its edible, enlarged, turnip-like roots. Var. dulce (celery) is grown as an annual in the garden for production of its crisp edible leaf stalks. It typically rises to 30" tall. Harvest may begin when the outer stalks reach 6-8" tall (heart of plant continues to grow). All stalks should be harvested prior to the first significant fall frost. Plants may escape gardens and naturalize (revert from var. dulce) in various parts of the U. S., particularly in the southwestern States. Celery is considered to be an invasive spreader in some areas.Genus name from Latin means bee (bees are reportedly attracted to the white flowers of the plant).


Flavonoids, natural compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, are reported to affect the inflammatory process and to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunomodulatory activity in-vitro and in-vivo. Since nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of the inflammatory mediators, the effects of the ethanol/water (1:1) extract of the leaves of Apium graveolens var. dulce (celery) on iNOS expression and NO production in the J774.A1 macrophage cell line stimulated for 24 h with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were evaluated. The extract of A. graveolens var. dulce contained apiin as the major constituent (1.12%, w/w, of the extract). The extract and apiin showed significant inhibitory activity on nitrite (NO) production in-vitro (IC50 0.073 and 0.08 mg mL(-1) for the extract and apiin, respectively) and iNOS expression (IC50 0.095 and 0.049 mg mL(-1) for the extract and apiin, respectively) in LPS-activated J774.A1 cells. The croton-oil ear test on mice showed that the extract exerted anti-inflammatory activity in-vivo (ID50 730 microg cm(-2)), with a potency seven-times lower than that of indometacin (ID50 93 microg cm(-2)), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as reference. Our results clearly indicated the inhibitory activity of the extract and apiin in-vitro on iNOS expression and nitrite production when added before LPS stimulation in the medium of J774.A1 cells. The anti-inflammatory properties of the extract demonstrated in-vivo might have been due to reduction of iNOS enzyme expression.


Red celery, botanically classified as Apium graveolens var. dulce, is a general descriptor for several varieties of pigmented celery belonging to the Apiaceae family. Celery is part of the parsnip family. This colourful, upright variety is native to Europe and are a specialty type of celery traditionally grown in home gardens.


Grown for its thick, crunchy stalks, Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) is a cool-weather biennial vegetable that is delicious and versatile. Rising to 30 in. tall (75 cm), it has long, firm, pale green fibrous stalks that taper into a bouquet of leaves at the top. Celery has a mild, earthy, slightly peppery taste. Raw Celery can be served by itself or with spreads or dips as an appetizer and in salads. Celery can also be steamed, baked, or used as a flavoring in various stocks, casseroles, and soups. Celery seeds can be ground and mixed with salt to produce celery salt. Celery salt is used as a seasoning and in cocktails (a flavorful ingredient of Bloody Mary cocktails).


Apium graveolens (celery and celeriac) are members of the family Umbelliferae. Apium species are typically biennial. The celery (Apium) collection at the PGRU consists of over 240 accessions. We house 4 botanical classes, including: graveolens L. (celery), graveolens L. var. Rapaceum (celeriac), graveolens L. var. Dulce (stalk celery), and spp. (unidentified or unnamed Apium).


Celeriac or celery root (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum) is a cool-weather vegetable that dislikes the heat and humidity of a typical St. Louis summer. Best growing season temperatures fall within the range of 60-75F. Celeriac tends to bolt if exposed to temperatures of 55F. or less for continuous periods of 1-2 weeks (cover plants at night if this problem occurs). This plant is difficult to grow well. It requires a moist, rich, well-drained soil in full sun with regular fertilization and consistent watering. Mulch helps soils retain moisture while discouraging weed growth. Start seed indoors about 10 weeks prior to last spring frost date. Starter plants should be set out in the garden about 8-10" apart after last spring frost date. Celeriac generally requires a rich, well-drained soil in full sun. Roots are ready to harvest after 3-4 months. It may be stored 6-8 months in a root cellar. Celeriac is not commonly used in the U.S.


Apium graveolens is a biennial to perennial herb that is reportedly native to temperate Mediterranean climates in Europe, Asia and Africa. Wild plants typically grow to 24-36" tall and to 12-18" wide with aromatic pinnately divided leaves. In biennial form, the plant forms a basal rossette of leaves in the first year followed in the second year by a summer bloom of off-white flowers in umbels. Plants may naturalize in the landscape through self-seeding. This species is the progenitor of two different vegetable crops: (1) Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) which is grown for its edible crisp leaf stalks and leaves and (2) Celery root or Celeriac (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum) which is grown for its swollen, edible, enlarged, brown, turnip-like roots. Var. rapaceum is know as celeriac or celery root and tastes like celery but with turnip-like additional flavoring. Roots are edible raw or cooked. Roots generally have their best flavor when harvested after several light fall frosts. Roots have a shelf life of 3-4 months if properly refrigerated (from 33 to 40F.).Genus name from Latin means bee (bees are reportedly attracted to the white flowers of the plant). 041b061a72


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